News

Ecopoetry – The Ginkgo Award

Source: Wikimedia Commons – Public domain

The world’s biggest ecopoetry prize was awarded on the 21st of November.

Renamed the Ginkgo prize and run by the poetry school, this year’s anthology can be downloaded here.

https://ginkgoprize.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/2019-Ginkgo_Visual-Guide.pdf.

Water

Writing Poetry in the Anthropocene

Portmarnock Strand in Shadow

“Well, friend, we’re here again —

sauntering the last half-mile to the land’s frayed end”

from Fianuis by Kathleen Jamie.

In her article ‘Sound Waves: “Blue Ecology” in the Poetry of Robin Robertson and Kathleen Jamie’, Alexandra Campbell unpacks several new terms and ecocritical concepts which she applies to contemporary Scottish ecopoetics. Campbell uses Jonathan Bate’s proposal that ecopoetics should orient itself to an ethic of ecological listening as a gateway to Kathleen Jamie’s The Tree House, which is striking for its aural oceanic mimesis. The first poem in this collection -“The Wishing Tree” contains a declaration of poetic intent to move “towards the Atlantic”, espousing a blue ecology, in contrast to “the wilderness nor fairyland”.

Blue ecology is an attempt to address what some theorists term a preoccupation of ecocriticism with ‘landed’ or green texts. Bodies of knowledge tend to be products of the era in which they were developed. First-wave ecocriticism priviledged the concept of place and rootedness, a holistic view of ecology and an earth-based human geography. As the discipline has advanced and ecology itself has shifted to a paradigm of systemic complexity and instability, contemporary ecocriticism has in turn imagined a more dynamic dialectic.

Models of blue ecology range from the ‘Shipwreck Modernity’ of Steve Mentz to Brayton’s submarine locales to Brathwaite’s tidalectics. For Peters and Steinberg it takes ‘space, time, and motion’ as its key organizing principles.

Tidalectics is an alternative historiographic definition available to theorists which applies ‘space, time and motion’ to island cultures. Uncovering the submerged, the marginal and shifting elements in island archipelagoes it moves the emphasis from the seas and oceans as mere transition routes to the status of oikos and site in itself.

to be ocean-stealers, to never throw a shadow — 

to dream the blank horizon and dread the sight of  land.

from the fishermen’s farewell by Robin Robertson

References:

Bate, Jonathan (2001), Song of the Earth, London, Pan Macmillan.

Brathwaite, Kamu in Naylor, Paul (1999) Poetic Investigations: Singing the Holes in History, Illinois, Northwestern University Press, page 143.

Brayton Daniel (2011) “Shakespeare and the Global Ocean”, in L. D. Bruckner and D. Brayton (eds), Ecocritical Shakespeare, Farnham, Ashgate, pp. 173–90.

Campbell, Alessandra, ‘Sound Waves: “Blue Ecology” in the Poetry of Robin Robertson and Kathleen Jamie ‘, Études écossaises [online], 19 | 2017.

Jamie, Kathleen (2004) The Tree House, London, Picador.

Mentz Steve (2015) Shipwreck Modernity: Ecologies of Globalization, 1550–1719, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Peters Kimberley & Steinberg Peter (2015) “Wet Ontologies, Fluid Spaces: Giving Depth to Volume Through Oceanic Thinking”, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 33, pp. 247–64.

Tree

Thomas Hardy – The First Ecocritical Author?

Blurring of tree with the human, park with bench created with box hedging
Box-hedged park bench in Parco Martiri della Libertà, Bellagio, Italy.

Elizabeth Carolyn Miller, a Professor of English at the University of California discusses the work of Thomas Hardy from an ecological realism viewpoint in her article – ‘Dendrography and Ecological Realism’. Writing during the Victorian Period, Hardy witnessed first-hand the advent of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on the traditional rural way of life and the English countryside. In his novel Under the Greenwood Tree of 1872, the tree is more than just an element in the narrative. It also acts as symbol and aids in the creation of narrative devices in the book.

Miller’s line of enquiry explores how Hardy treats eco-representation and tries to free himself of human mediation of the environment. She formally defines this as a strategy of dendrography, that is, using the scale, time frame and perspective of trees. This strategy involves episodes of misrepresentation, mistaken identities and visibility issues. Hardy also emphasizes the sense of hearing in an attempt to overcome mediation through the use of onomatopoeia. Human characters are not individualized and become tree-like while trees are described in human terms. The apple tree in particular is used to symbolise the integration of both species.

The result of this particular form of eco-representation is that the scale of human life and culture is transformed and takes on the longer timescale of trees and forests.

Victorian painting Forest scene with children and pigs
Painting inspired by Hardy’s Under the Greenwood Tree by Lionel Percey Smythe (1840 – 1918) The Victoria and Albert Museum.

Miller uses the trope of the footpath to provide examples. Usually footpaths represent the human entering and becoming part of the arboreal world, Hardy subverts this trope by elevating the perspective above the human.

‘[he] sloped up a hill and entered a hazel copse by a hole like a rabbit’s burrow. In he plunged, vanished among the bushes, and in a short time there was no sign of his existence upon earth save an occasional rustling of boughs and snapping of twigs in divers points of Grey’s Wood’

Under the greenwood tree by thomas hardy, – p. 128.

This subversion is exactly what academics have called for as a way to approach the overwhelming concept of global climate change. Miller cites Timothy Clarke who proposes that this imaginary leap centres around concepts of scale. Modern national cultures have short time frames which are defined by historical periodization. Enviromental policy needs the long-term perspective, decoupled from human history. It requires moving to the totality of planetary history. Miller sees dendrography as a means of providing a mental construct for this shift.


References:

Clark, Timothy (2015) Ecocriticism on the Edge:The Anthropocene as a Threshold Concept, Bloomsbury Academic. 

Hardy, Thomas (2013) Under the Greenwood Tree;Or, The Mellstock Quire: A Rural Painting of the Dutch School.  Oxford:Oxford UP, p. 128.

Miller, Elizabeth Carolyn (2016) ‘Dendrography and Ecological Realism’, Victorian Studies, Volume 58, Number 4, Summer 2016, pp.696-718, Indiana University Press.

Definitions

Ecocriticism: A Literary Response

Ecocriticism is a rapidly expanding field of research, which has captured the zeitgeist, a time which has given rise to its own geological period, the Anthropocene.   This term, proposed by Paul Crutzen, seeks to signify the extent to which our current epoch has been overwhelming marked by human activity, affecting permanent change at a geological and planetary level.   Human activity has created global warming, climate change and it would seem our sixth mass extinction. 

In the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences the response to this global preoccupation has been ecological criticism.  A fundamental tenet of ecocriticism is that the environment and its ecology should be a topic of overriding importance in all spheres, not limited to its original home in the sciences.   This tenet has spurred a mass crossover into the arts and humanities and the creation of new fields of research. 

In a seminal lecture by Prof. Kate Rigby entitled ‘Paradigm Shifts: “The Ecological Turn in Literary Studies” [1].  She defines ecocriticism as literature which recognizes the ‘dynamic interrelationship between culture and the environment, recognizing also non-humans as well as human interests, agency and communicative capacity,’[2]  What all branches of eco-literature have in common is this rehabilitation and reconsideration of Nature.    No longer considered a separate entity or backdrop to human activity, it now becomes a central consideration.

Several groundbreaking shifts have occurred.  The creation of new literary genres such as cli-fi, and eco-poetics and new eco-based disciplines in the natural and social sciences, such as biosemotics and environmental justice.  Existing literary theories have re-examined their own frameworks to accommodate the field of ecology and vice versa, creating hybrid disciplines.  Rigby maintains that this crossing of ‘the disciplinary divide [is] necessary to close the sustainability gap’[3].   

A characteristic of this field is how it intertwines overtly with activism.   There is often a sense of urgency and purpose expressed directly in the text.   Many authors reference key dates, legislation and activist groups, such as Earth Day, foundational conferences, the creation of journals and chairs of professorships and engage with citizen’s initiatives.  Indeed in my first citation from Professor Rigby, she notes that the lecture was given during the Cop 21 talks in Paris.


[1] Rigby,K. (2017) Paradigm Shifts: “The Ecological Turn in Literary Studies”:[Online] Available at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4ufeMLo-os.

[2] Ibid, 3’:01 -10.  

[3] Ibid, 23’18.

News

A Tree for every Child

Larch / Larice sapling

A small but positive action for the environment as a norm which dates from the 29th of January 1992 has now been enshrined in law with full effect from the 16th of February 2019. This law states that any comune with a population of over 15,000 must plant a tree for every newborn or adopted child on its register within 6 months.

Deforestation and the destruction of green areas is occuring at an alarming pace in Italy. The Italian Environmental Protection and Research Centre – Ispra has declared that Italy is loosing its green areas at a rate of 2 metres squared a second.

The Comitato per lo sviluppo del verde pubblico, (Commitee for the Development of Public Green Areas) under the remit of the Ministry for the Environment will have responsibility for the project which includes an annual tree census. The law also protects ‘monumental’ trees and redefines National Tree Day ( 21st of November) promoting educational programs in schools to support the Kyoto Protocol.

Source Ansa